Dr Anna-Lisa Paul said veggies have shown "astonishing" better than Earth growth on the International Space Station.
And claimed we could in theory grow "any plant" we want on the manned mission to Mars - set to blast off as early as 2035.
Dr Paul said the US space agency has been looking at mutant varieties of plum trees to take on the years-long journey.
She told Houston We Have a Podcast: "There's been a lot of work on trying to miniaturize plants and also sort of obviate some of the problems that, say, a fruit tree has of, you know, they only flower once a year and they get really big, et cetera, et cetera.
"And so, some of the work that's been done down at Kennedy Space Center has been, in fact, to do things like look at certain mutations in natural mutations in plants that have made them, and plum trees is one of these, where they're much smaller. They grow almost like vines. They bloom and fruit continuously.
"And so now you can envision, you know, having some kind of viny thing growing on a space station or someplace else that would allow you to have kind of fresh fruit.
"You can do almost anything because plants know they're in space. They modify their metabolisms to adjust to it, but they do pretty much just fine."
Speaking about growing a plant on the International Space Station with NASA scientist Dr Gioia Massa, she added: "And the Arabidopsis plants were far more robust and far more plump and juicy looking than the ones that we normally grow in our growth chambers here at the University of Florida.
"And the reason was because we were growing them in the projection of carbon dioxide levels and lighting levels that we would be using on the space station. And with the extra lighting and the extra CO2 that these Arabidopsis plants were getting that you don't get normally here in the growth chambers in Florida, they were going to town, and it was astonishing."