He was pictured leaving Walter Reed National Military Medical Centre wearing a face mask.
Trump pumped his fist as he walked out of the hospital on Monday evening just after 6.30pm local time (11.30pm UK time) towards a waiting SUV which carried him to the Marine One helicopter for the short flight back to the White House.
He said simply "thank you very much" to the assembled reporters before getting into his car.
The president has received an unprecedented level of care for Covid-19 in the past few days, despite spending months downplaying the severity of the virus.
Tweeting while in hospital, the 74-year-old insisted the nation shouldn't be afraid of coronavirus, which has killed more than 210,000 people, the highest death toll in the world.
His doctor, Navy Commander Sean Conley, said the high-risk president would be closely monitored for another week.
But he added that Trump had "met or exceeded all standard hospital discharge criteria".
Even before leaving hospital, the president took to Twitter to say he would be back on the US election campaign trail soon.
In Monday's afternoon briefing, Dr Conley said the president could get back to his normal schedule once "there is no evidence of live virus still present".
According to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, those with mild to moderate coronavirus symptoms must self-isolate for at least 10 days.
It comes after the president was criticised by his own medical experts for hosting an event at the White House last month.
The September 26 ceremony in a crowded White House Rose Garden to celebrate the nomination of a Supreme Court justice was branded a "dangerous situation" by top US virus expert Anthony Fauci.
Footage of the event showed many guests weren't wearing masks, with many filmed hugging, shaking hands and breaching social distancing.
Following the event, President Trump, wife Melania Trump, former top aide Kellyanne Conway and former New Jersey governor Chris Christie are among the attendees to have tested positive.
Fauci told Times Radio: "When I see pictures like that, not only there but anywhere, people who are in bars congregating, people who are at parties congregating without masks, that is a dangerous situation that can lead to a high risk of transmissibility, and unfortunately, and I say really unfortunately, that's exactly what happened during that meeting that was had to celebrate the appointment of a Supreme Court justice."
He also said the event could be described as a "super-spreader", given the number of people who have subsequently become infected.