Partey completed a late £45m switch from Atletico Madrid on deadline day but he has not spent much time training with his new team-mates, having jetted off on international duty after signing.
The midfielder played the full 90 minutes in two international friendlies for Ghana and Arteta admitted he has only had "a day-and-a-half of training" ahead of the City fixture.
When asked about Partey ahead of the game, Arteta said: "Obviously we were tempted [to start him] but he had a day-and a half of training, a lot of new things, he’s establishing [himself] here.
"We need to be a little bit patient and respect some timings."
Fellow Gunners midfielder Granit Xhaka hailed Partey's quality in a recent interview with Sky Sports, saying: "He played at the Emirates two years ago in the Europa League semi-final when we lost against them.
"He is a great player. If not, then Arsenal don't buy him - so simple.
"He has the quality to bring us one step forward. He is very, very good in the duels, his passing is very good.
"He played in Atletico Madrid a different type of football so he can help the team and I am more than happy we have a player like him.
"I am more than happy if we can play with each other and meet each other and start to learn each other a lot of things."
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Xhaka also praised Arteta's impact on his own career, adding: "Mikel explained to me how important I was to the team.
"Until this day the words he gave me was exactly what I wanted to hear and for me it was very important to show I will give everything for the club and the fans.
"I'm sure we're going back in the Champions League next season."